Yasin T. al-Jibouri

مسلسل المعصومين (ع) – العودة لفدك

Fadak is a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land approximately thirty miles from Medina, and it was known for its water-wells, date-trees and handicrafts. When the Muslims defeated the people of Khaybar at the Battle of Khaybar, which took place in the year 628 A.D., the oasis of Fadak was part of the booty given to the Prophet Muhammed. Upon his death, he bequeathed it to his daughter, Fatima (as). It became the object of dispute between Fatima (as) and Abu Bakr (573 – 634 A.D.) after the latter had assumed power in the year 632 A.D. following the Prophet’s death.

Prophet Muhammed (P) led the march on Khaybar oasis on Thul-Qa’da 6, 7 A.H., corresponding to May 7, 629 A.D., with approximately 1500 men and one to two hundred horses. Primary sources, including the Seerat Rasool Allah (Biography of the Prophet) of Ibn Ishaq, describe the conquest of Khaybar, detailing the agreement of Muhammed with the Jews to remain in Fadak and cultivate their land, retaining one-half of the produce of the oasis. This agreement was distinct from the agreement with the Jews of Khaybar, which essentially entailed the practice of share-cropping. It is not entirely clear how Muhammed managed his possession of Fadak. Some Muslim commentators agree that after the conquest of Fadak, the property belonged exclusively to the Prophet. Various primary sources describe the acquisition of Fadak in the following way:

An account indicates that eleven fruit trees in Fadak were planted by the Prophet (P) himself. Other scholars who accept the view of Fadak as belonging exclusively to the Prophet (P) after the conquest of Khaybar include Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi, Ibn Hisham and Abul-Fida’.

Upon the death of the Prophet (P) on Rabi’ I 2 or 12, 11 A.H./May 31st or June 12th, 632 A.D., his daughter Fatima (as) declared her claim to inherit Fadak as the estate of her father. The claim was rejected by Abu Bakr on instigation from Omar ibn al-Khattab on the grounds that Fadak was public property and arguing that the Prophet had “no heirs”. Sources report that Ali (as) together with Umm Ayman testified to the fact that Muhammed granted it to Fatima (as) when Abu Bakr required Fatima (as) to summon witnesses for her claim. Various primary sources contend that Fadak was gifted by Muhammed to Fatima (as), drawing on the Qur’an as evidence. These include narrations of Ibn ‘Abbas who argued that when the Qur’anic verse on giving rights to kindred was revealed, Muhammed called to his daughter and gifted the land of Fadak to her.

Various scholars commenting on the Qur’an, Surat Al-Hashr (Chapter 59), verse 7, write that the Angel Gabriel came to the Prophet and commanded him to give the appropriate rights to “Thul Qurba” (near kin). The verse reads:

مَّا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الأَغْنِيَاء مِنكُمْ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the towns, belongs to Allah, to His Messenger, and to (the Prophet’s) kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarers; so that it may not be taken in turn by the rich among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and abstain from what he withholds from you. And fear Allah, for Allah is strict in punishment (59:7).

When asked by the Prophet (P) about who those “Thul Qurba” were referred to in that verse, Gabriel replied: “Fatima (as)” and that by “rights” was meant “Fadak”, upon which Muhammed called Fatima (as) and presented Fadak to her.

Historical accounts
During the rule of Abu Bakr, fadak was denied to Fatima, which led to her protest, as appears in her Khutba at the Prophet’s Mosque (see below).

When Omar became Khalifa, the value of the land of Fadak along with its dates was, according to some account, 50,000 dirhams. Ali (as) again claimed Fatima’s inheritance during Omar’s era but was denied with the same argument as in the time of Abu Bakr. Omar, however, restored the estates in Medina to `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and Ali (as), as representatives of Muhammed’s clan, the Banu Hashim.

During Uthman’s Khilaafah, Marwan ibn al-Hakam, (his cousin), was made trustee of Fadak.

After Uthman, Ali (as) became Khalifa but did not overturn the decision of his predecessor. He maintained Marwan’s position as trustee of the Fadak. During Ali’s Khilaafah, Fadak was regarded to be under the control of the Prophet’s family, so the Khalifa did not make a formal declaration of personal possession in order to avoid resurrecting old feuds and jealousies and thus the causing of disunity regarding.

Under the Umayyads (661 – 750 A.D.), Mu’awiyah, their first self-imposed ruler, the latter did not return Fadak to Fatima’s descendants.

This way was continued by later Umayyad Khalifas until the time of Khalifa Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz. When Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz, known as Omar II, became Khalifa in 717 A.D., the income from the property of Fadak was 40,000 dinars. Fadak was returned to Fatima’s descendants by an edict given by Omar II, but this decision was renounced by later Khalifas and may have been the cause of Omar being killed as well.

Omar II’s successor, Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik (known as Yazid II) overturned his decision, and Fadak was again made public trust. Fadak was then managed this way until the Ummayad Khilaafah expired.

Under the Abbasi period (750 – 1258 A.D.), in 747 A.D., an overwhelming revolt against the Umayyad Khilaafah took place. The Umayyad’s were eventually defeated by the Abbasi army under the rule of “Abu Abbas” Abdullah al-Saffah (al-Saffah means in Arabic “blood-shedder” which perfectly describes him and his dynasty). The last Umayyad ruler, Marwan II, was killed in a lesser battle a few months after the Battle of the Zab of 750 A.D., thus ending the Umayyad Khilaafah.

Historical accounts differ about what happened to Fadak under early Abbasid rulers. Most likely they collected its revenues and spent it as they pleased. There is, however, consensus among Islamic scholars that Fadak was returned to the descendants of Fatima (as) during Al-Ma’Moon’s reign (831-833 A.D.). Al-Ma’Moon even decreed this to be recorded in his diwans.

Al-Ma’Moon’s successor, al-Mutawakkil (847-861 A.D.), repossessed Fadak, confiscating it from the descendants of Fatima (as).

Al-Muntasir (861-862 A.D.), however, apparently maintained the decision of al-Ma’mun, thus allowing Fatima’s offspring to manage Fadak.

What happened thereafter is uncertain, but Fadak was probably seized by again and managed exclusively by the ruler of the time as his own personal property, and thus do some people behave.

Khaybar oasis:
In the 7th century, the Khaybar oasis was inhabited by Arab Jews who pioneered the cultivation of the oasis and made their living growing date palm trees as well as through commerce and craftsmanship, accumulating considerable wealth. Some objects found by the Muslims following their conquest of Khaybar and its fortresses included a siege-engine, 20 bales of Yemenite cloth, and 500 cloaks, an indication of an intense trade carried out by those Jews.

The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shiqq, and al-Katiba, probably separated by natural diversions, such as the desert, lava drifts, and swamps. Each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts containing homes, storehouses and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a clan and surrounded by cultivated fields and palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks

One may wonder what brought those Jews to Medina. There are two theories. One says that those Jews were motivated by the desire to be the first to believe in the new Arabian Prophet whose name they have in their religious books and whose mission was about to start, so they made a mass immigration to Medina. Their high rabbis told them that Medina would be the place where the new Prophet, Muhammed, would be preaching the divine message. This view is supported by verses 40 – 103 of Surat al-Baqara (Chapter of the Cow, i.e. Ch. 2) which repeatedly admonishes the Israelites and strongly rebukes them for seeing the truth but turning away from it. According to this theory, those Jews with religious fervor had come from Jerusalem in particular and Greater Syria (Sham) in particular.

The other theory seeks an explanation from the historic events that took place in southern Arabia, particularly Yemen, concluding that those Jews had migrated from there seeking religious freedom and better economic conditions. This is how advocates of this theory reason:

The immigration of the majority of Jews into Yemen from abroad appears to have taken place about the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., although the province is mentioned neither by Josephus, better known as Yoseph ben (ibn, i.e. son of) Mattithyahu (37 – cir. 100 A.D.), a Romano-Jewish historian and hagiographer of priestly and royal ancestry, nor by the main books of the Jewish oral law, namely the Mishnah and Talmud. According to some sources, the Jews of Yemen enjoyed prosperity until the 6th century A.D. The Himyarite King, Abu-Karib Asad Toban, converted to Judaism at the end of the 5th century, while laying siege to Medina. It is likely some of his soldiers preferred to stay there for economic and perhaps other reasons. His army had marched north to battle the Aksumites who had been fighting for control of Yemen for a hundred years. The Aksumites were only expelled from the region when the newly Jewish king rallied the Jews together from all over Arabia, together with pagan allies. But this victory was short-lived.

In 518, the kingdom of Yemen was taken over by Zar’a Yousuf, who was of “royal descent” but was not the son of his predecessor, Ma’di Karib Ya’fur. Yousuf converted to Judaism and instigated wars to drive the Aksumite Ethiopians from Arabia. Zar’a Yusuf is chiefly known by his cognomen “Thu Nuwas”, in reference to his “curly hair.”

The Jewish rule lasted till 525 A.D., only 85 years before the inception of the Islamic Prophetic mission. Some historians, however, date it later, to 530, when Christians from the Aksumite Kingdom of Ethiopia defeated and killed Thu Nuwas, taking power in Yemen. According to a number of medieval historians, Thu Nuwas announced that he would persecute the Christians living in his kingdom, mostly in Najran, because Christian states persecuted his fellow co-religionists (the Jews) in their realms. This persecution, which took place in the year 524 A.D., is blamed on one Dimnon in Najran, that is modern al-Ukhdud area of Saudi Arabia.

Any reader of the Holy Qur’an must have come across verse 4 of Surat al-Buruj (Chapter 85) of the Holy Qur’an which refers to ashab al-ukhdud, fellows of the Ukhdud, which is imprecisely translated as “the ditch self-destructed”. To the author of this book, my dear reader, “the ditch self-destructed” does not make much sense at all. Actually, this “ukhdud” was a long ditch filled with firewood. It was lit and the believers were thrown into it if they refused to abandon their faith. Some ran away from this inferno, which may remind one of a similar situation which took place with Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) at the hands of Nimrud of 13th Century B.C. Assyria. The survivors, most likely Christians and Jews, fled up north in the direction of Medina which they made it home. The Almighty in 85:4 condemns this massacre in the strongest of terms.

According to some sources, after seizing the throne of the Himyarites, in 518 or 523 A.D., Thu Nuwas attacked the Aksumite (mainly Christian) garrison at Zafar, capturing them and burning their churches. He then moved against Najran, a Christian and Aksumite stronghold. After accepting the city’s capitulation, he massacred those inhabitants who would not renounce Christianity in this ukhdud incident. Estimates of the death toll from this event range up to 20,000 in some sources. So, believers in God, Christians and Jews, had reasons to go somewhere else where they would practice their religion freely while enjoying better business opportunities among Arabs who, at the time, were mostly nomads.

After the demise of the Messenger of Allah (P), many Muslims showed their real colors, demonstrating the shallowness of their conviction. Abu Bakr took charge of the Muslims’ affairs through diligent efforts of his successor, Omar ibn al-Khattab, and among what the new Khalifa did was the confiscation of the property of Fadak which used to yield a decent revenue for Fatima (as) and her family (as). Fatima (as) would not surrender easily, and she had to fight for her right, so she went to argue with Abu Bakr and demand the return of Fadak.

خطبة فاطمة الزهراء (as) بنت النبي محمد في مسجد أبيها (P) عند مطالبتها بفدك و ميراثها من أبيها:

روى عبد الله بن الحسن باسناده عن آبائه ، أنه لما أجمع أبوبكر وعمر على منع فاطمة عليها السلام فدكا و بلغها ذلك لاثت خمارها على رأسها و اشتملت بجلبابها وأقبلت في لمةٍ من حفدتها ونساء قومها تطأ ذيولها، ما تخرم مشيتها مشية رسول الله (P)، حتى دخلت على أبي بكر وهو في حشد من المهاجرين والأنصار وغيرهم فنيطت دونها ملاءة فجلست ثم أنَت أنَةً أجهش القوم لها بالبكاء فأرتج المجلس ثم أمهلت هنيئة حتى إذا كن نشيج القوم وهدأت فورتهم افتتحت الكلام بحمد الله و الثناء عليه والصلاة على رسوله فعاد القوم في بكائهم فلما أمسكوا عادت في كلامها فقالت عليها السلام

الحمد لله على ما أنعم وله الشكر على ما ألهم والثناء بما قدم من عموم نعم ابتداها وسبوغ آلاء أسداها وتمام منن أولاها جم عن الإحصاء عددها ونأى عن الجزاء أمدها وتفاوت عن الإدراك أبدها وندبهم لاستزادتها بالشكر لاتصالها واستحمد إلى الخلائق بإجزالها وثنى بالندب إلى أمثالها وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له كلمة جعل الإخلاص تأويلها وضمن القلوب موصولها وأنار في التفكر معقولها الممتنع من الأبصار رؤيته ومن الألسن صفته ومن الأوهام كيفيته

ابتدع الأشياء لا من شي‏ء كان قبلها وأنشأها بلا احتذاء أمثلة امتثلها كونها بقدرته وذرأها بمشيته من غير حاجة منه إلى تكوينها ولا فائدة له في تصويرها إلا تثبيتا لحكمته وتنبيها على طاعته وإظهارا لقدرته تعبدا لبريته وإعزازا لدعوته ثم جعل الثواب على طاعته ووضع العقاب على معصيته ذيادة لعباده من نقمته وحياشة لهم إلى جنته

وأشهد أن أبي محمدا عبده ورسوله اختاره قبل أن أرسله وسماه قبل أن اجتباه واصطفاه قبل أن ابتعثه إذ الخلائق بالغيب مكنونة وبستر الأهاويل مصونة وبنهاية العدم مقرونة علما من الله تعالى بمآيل الأمور وإحاطة بحوادث الدهور ومعرفة بمواقع الأمور ابتعثه الله إتماما لأمره وعزيمة على إمضاء حكمه وإنفاذا لمقادير رحمته

فرأى الأمم فرقا في أديانها عكفا على نيرانها عابدة لأوثانها منكرة لله مع عرفانها فأنار الله بأبي محمد ص ظلمها وكشف عن القلوب بهمها وجلى عن الأبصار غممها وقام في الناس بالهداية فأنقذهم من الغواية وبصرهم من العماية وهداهم إلى الدين القويم ودعاهم إلى الطريق المستقيم ثم قبضه الله إليه قبض رأفة واختيار ورغبة وإيثار فمحمد (P) من تعب هذه الدار في راحة قد حف بالملائكة الأبرار ورضوان الرب الغفار ومجاورة الملك الجبار صلى الله على أبي نبيه وأمينه وخيرته من الخلق وصفيه والسلام عليه ورحمة الله وبركاته.

ثم التفتت إلى أهل المجلس وقالت :

أنتم عباد الله نصب أمره ونهيه وحملة دينه ووحيه وأمناء الله على أنفسكم وبلغاءه إلى الأمم زعيم حق له فيكم وعهد قدمه إليكم وبقية استخلفها عليكم كتاب الله الناطق والقرآن الصادق والنور الساطع والضياء اللامع بينة بصائره منكشفة سرائره منجلية ظواهره مغتبطة به أشياعه قائدا إلى الرضوان اتباعه مؤد إلى النجاة استماعه به تنال حجج الله المنورة وعزائمه المفسرة ومحارمه المحذرة وبيناته الجالية وبراهينه الكافية وفضائله المندوبة ورخصه الموهوبة وشرائعه المكتوبة

فجعل الله الإيمان تطهيرا لكم من الشرك والصلاة تنزيها لكم عن الكبر والزكاة تزكية للنفس ونماء في الرزق والصيام تثبيتا للإخلاص والحج تشييدا للدين والعدل تنسيقا للقلوب وطاعتنا نظاما للملة وإمامتنا أمانا للفرقة والجهاد عزا للإسلام والصبر معونة على استيجاب الأجر والأمر بالمعروف مصلحة للعامة وبر الوالدين وقاية من السخط وصلة الأرحام منسأة في العمر ومنماة للعدد والقصاص حقنا للدماء والوفاء بالنذر تعريضا للمغفرة وتوفية المكاييل والموازين تغييرا للبخس والنهي عن شرب الخمر تنزيها عن الرجس واجتناب القذف حجابا عن اللعنة وترك السرقة إيجابا للعفة وحرم الله الشرك إخلاصا له بالربوبية فاتقوا الله حق تقاته ولا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون وأطيعوا الله فيما أمركم به ونهاكم عنه فإنه إنما يخشى الله من عباده العلماء.

ثم قالت:

أيها الناس اعلموا أني فاطمة و أبي محمد ص أقول عودا وبدوا ولا أقول ما أقول غلطا ولا أفعل ما أفعل شططا ، لَقَدْ جاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ ما عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَؤُفٌ رَحِيمٌ ، فإن تعزوه وتعرفوه تجدوه أبي دون نسائكم وأخا ابن عمي دون رجالكم ، ولنعم المعزى إليه ص فبلغ الرسالة صادعا بالنذارة مائلا عن مدرجة المشركين ضاربا ثبجهم آخذا بأكظامهم داعيا إلى سبيل ربه بالحكمة والموعظة الحسنة يجف الأصنام وينكث الهام حتى انهزم الجمع وولوا الدبر حتى تفرى الليل عن صبحه وأسفر الحق عن محضه ونطق زعيم الدين وخرست شقاشق الشياطين وطاح وشيظ النفاق وانحلت عقد الكفر والشقاق وفهتم بكلمة الإخلاص في نفر من البيض الخماص

وكنتم على شفا حفرة من النار مذقة الشارب ونهزة الطامع وقبسة العجلان وموطئ الأقدام تشربون الطرق وتقتاتون القد و الورق أذلة خاسئين تخافون أن يتخطفكم الناس من حولكم فأنقذكم الله تبارك وتعالى بمحمد ص بعد اللتيا واللتي وبعد أن مني ببهم الرجال وذؤبان العرب ومردة أهل الكتاب كلما أوقدوانارا للحرب أطفأها الله أو نجم قرن الشيطان أو فغرت فاغرة من المشركين قذف أخاه في لهواتها فلا ينكفئ حتى يطأ جناحها بأخمصه ويخمد لهبها بسيفه مكدودا في ذات الله مجتهدا في أمر الله قريبا من رسول الله سيدا في أولياء الله مشمرا ناصحا مجدا كادحا لا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم وأنتم في رفاهية من العيش وادعون فاكهون آمنون تتربصون بنا الدوائر وتتوكفون الأخبار وتنكصون عند النزال وتفرون من القتال.

فلما اختار الله لنبيه دار أنبيائه ومأوى أصفيائه ظهر فيكم حسكة النفاق وسمل جلباب الدين ونطق كاظم الغاوين ونبغ خامل الأقلين وهدر فنيق المبطلين فخطر في عرصاتكم وأطلع الشيطان رأسه من مغرزه هاتفا بكم فألفاكم لدعوته مستجيبين وللعزة فيه ملاحظين ثم استنهضكم فوجدكم خفافا وأحمشكم فألفاكم غضابا فوسمتم غير إبلكم ووردتم غير مشربكم هذا والعهد قريب والكلم رحيب والجرح لما يندمل والرسول لما يقبر ابتدارا زعمتم خوف الفتنة ألا في الفتنة سقطوا وإن جهنم لمحيطة بالكافرين

فهيهات منكم وكيف بكم وأنى تؤفكون وكتاب الله بين أظهركم أموره ظاهرة وأحكامه زاهرة وأعلامه باهرة وزواجره لائحة وأوامره واضحة وقد خلفتموه وراء ظهوركم أرغبة عنه تريدون أم بغيره تحكمون بئس للظالمين بدلا ومن يتبع غير الإسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين

ثم لم تلبثوا إلا ريث أن تسكن نفرتها ويسلس قيادها ثم أخذتم تورون وقدتها وتهيجون جمرتها وتستجيبون لهتاف الشيطان الغوي وإطفاء أنوار الدين الجلي وإهمال سنن النبي الصفي تشربون حسوا في ارتغاء وتمشون لأهله وولده في الخمرة والضراء ويصير منكم على مثل حز المدى ووخز السنان في الحشا وأنتم الآن تزعمون أن لا إرث لنا ، أ فحكم الجاهلية تبغون ومن أحسن من الله حكما لقوم يوقنون أفلا تعلمون ،

بلى قد تجلى لكم كالشمس الضاحية أني ابنته أيها المسلمون أأغلب على إرثي يا ابن أبي قحافة أفي كتاب الله ترث أباك ولا أرث أبي؟ لقد جئت شيئا فريا أفعلى عمد تركتم كتاب الله ونبذتموه وراء ظهوركم إذ يقول” :وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمانُ داوُد”َ وقال فيما اقتص من خبر يحيى بن زكريا إذ قال : “فَهَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا يَرِثُنِي وَ يَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ” وقال” : وَ أُولُوا الْأَرْحامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتابِ اللَّهِ” وقال”:يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلادِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ “وقال” : إِنْ تَرَكَ خَيْراً الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوالِدَيْنِ وَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ”، وزعمتم أن لا حظوة لي ولا إرث من أبي ولا رحم بيننا أفخصكم الله بآية أخرج أبي منها أم هل تقولون إن أهل ملتين لا يتوارثان أو لست أنا وأبي من أهل ملة واحدة أم أنتم أعلم بخصوص القرآن وعمومه من أبي وابن عمي؟ فدونكموها مخطومة مرحولة تلقاكم يوم حشركم، فنعم الحكم الله والزعيم محمد والموعد القيامة، وعند الساعة يخسر المبطلون، ولا ينفعكم إذ تندمون، ولكل نبأ مستقر وسوف تعلمون من يأتيه عذاب يخزيه ويحل عليه عذاب مقيم.

ثم رمت بطرفها نحو الأنصار فقالت:
يا معشر النقيبة وأعضاد الملة وحضنة الإسلام، ما هذه الغميزة في حقي والسنة عن ظلامتي أما كان رسول الله أبي يقول المرء يحفظ في ولده سرعان ما أحدثتم وعجلان ذا إهالة ولكم طاقة بما أحاول وقوة على ما أطلب و أزاول أتقولون مات محمد (P) فخطب جليل استوسع وهنه واستنهر فتقه وانفتق رتقه وأظلمت الأرض لغيبته وكسفت الشمس والقمر وانتثرت النجوم لمصيبته وأكدت الآمال وخشعت الجبال وأضيع الحريم وأزيلت الحرمة عند مماته،

فتلك والله النازلة الكبرى والمصيبة العظمى لا مثلها نازلة ولا بائقة عاجلة أعلن بها كتاب الله جل ثناؤه في أفنيتكم وفي ممساكم ومصبحكم يهتف في أفنيتكم هتافا وصراخا وتلاوة وألحانا ولقبله ما حل بأنبياء الله ورسله حكم فصل وقضاء حتم “وَ ما مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ أَ فَإِنْ ماتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلى أَعْقابِكُمْ وَ مَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلى عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً وَ سَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ .“

إيها بني قيله أأهضم تراث أبي وأنتم بمرأى مني ومسمع ومنتدى ومجمع تلبسكم الدعوة وتشملكم الخبرة وأنتم ذوو العدد والعدة والأداة والقوة وعندكم السلاح والجنة توافيكم الدعوة فلا تجيبون وتأتيكم الصرخة فلا تغيثون؟ أنتم موصوفون بالكفاح معروفون بالخير والصلاح والنخبة التي انتخبت والخيرة التي اختيرت لنا أهل البيت قاتلتم العرب وتحملتم الكد والتعب وناطحتم الأمم كافحتم البهم لا نبرح أو تبرحون نأمركم فتأتمرون حتى إذا دارت بنا رحى الإسلام ودر حلب الأيام وخضعت ثغرة الشرك وسكنت فورة الإفك وخمدت نيران الكفر وهدأت دعوة الهرج واستوسق نظام الدين

فأنى حزتم بعد البيان وأسررتم بعد الإعلان ونكصتم بعد الإقدام وأشركتم بعد الإيمان؛بؤسا لقوم نكثوا أيمانهم من بعد عهدهم وهموا بإخراج الرسول وهم بدءوكم أول مرة أ تخشونهم فالله أحق أن تخشوه إن كنتم مؤمنين ألا وقد أرى أن قد أخلدتم إلى الخفض وأبعدتم من هو أحق بالبسط والقبض وخلوتم بالدعة ونجوتم بالضيق من السعة فمججتم ما وعيتم ودسعتم الذي تسوغتم فإن تكفروا أنتم ومن في الأرض جميعا فإن الله لغني حميد

ألا وقد قلت ما قلت هذا على معرفة مني بالجذلة التي خامرتكم والغدرة التي استشعرتها قلوبكم ولكنها فيضة النفس ونفثة الغيظ وخور القناة وبثة الصدر وتقدمة الحجة فدونكموها فاحتقبوها دبرة الظهر نقبة الخف باقية العار موسومة بغضب الجبار وشنار الأبد موصولة بنار الله الموقدة التي تطلع على الأفئدة ، فبعين الله ما تفعلون وسيعلم الذين ظلموا أي منقلب ينقلبون وأنا ابنة نذير لكم بين يدي عذاب شديد فاعملوا إنا عاملون و انتظروا إنا منتظرون.

Abullah son of Imam‎ al-Hasan (as) quotes his forefathers saying that Abu Bakr and Omar decided to prevent Fatima‎ (as) from her Fadak property. When she came to know about it, she put her veil on her head, wrapped herself with her outer cloak and, accompanied by some of her relatives and men of her folks, stepping on her gown, her gait not differing from that of the Messenger of Allah‎ (P), she went and entered [the Mosque of the Prophet] where Abu Bakr was.

Abu Bakr was in the company of a crowd of the Muhajireen, Ansaar and others. A curtain was placed behind which Fatima sat and moaned. Hearing her thus moaning, everyone present there and then burst in tears, so much so that the meeting place shook. She waited for a moment till the sobbing stopped and the fervor abated. She started her speech by praising Allah‎ and lauding Him, sending blessings to His Messenger (P), whereupon people resumed their cries. When they stopped, she resumed her speech saying,

Praise to Allah‎ for that which He bestowed (on us). We thank and laud Him for all that which He inspired and offered, for the abundant boons which He initiated, the perfect grants which He presented. Such boons are too many to compute, too vast to measure. Their limit is too distant to grasp. He commended them (to His beings) so they would gain more by being grateful for their continuity. He ordained Himself praiseworthy by giving generously to His creatures. I testify that there is no God but Allah‎, the One without a partner, a statement which sincere devotion is its interpretation, the hearts guarantee its continuation, and in the minds and hearts is its perpetuation. He is the One Who cannot be perceived with vision, nor can He be described by tongues, nor can imagination comprehend how He is.

He originated things but not from anything that existed before, created them without pre-existing examples. Rather, He created them with His might and spread them according to His will. He did so not for a need for which He created them, nor for a benefit (for Him) did He shape them, but to establish His wisdom, bring attention to His obedience, manifest His might, lead His creatures to humbly venerate Him and exalt His decrees. He then made the reward for obedience to Him and punishment for disobedience so as to protect His creatures from His Wrath and lodge them into His Paradise.

“I also testify that my Father, Muhammed (P), is His servant and messenger whom He chose. Prior to sending him, the [souls of all] beings were still concealed in that which was transcendental, protected from anything appalling, associated with termination and nonexistence. Allah‎ the Exalted One knew that which was to follow, comprehended that which would come to pass and realized the place of every event. Allah‎ sent him (Muhammed (P) to perfect His commands, accomplish His decree and implement the dictates of His Mercy. So he (Muhammed (P) found nations differing in their creeds, obsessed by their fires [Zoroastrians], worshipping their idols [Pagans], and denying Allah‎ [atheists] despite their knowledge of Him. Therefore, Allah‎ illuminated their darkness with my Father, Muhammed (P), uncovered obscurity from their hearts, and cleared the clouds from their insights. He revealed guidance to the people. He delivered them from being led astray, taking them away from misguidance, showing them the right religion and inviting them to the Straight Path (as-ˉirat al-Mustaqeem).

“Allah‎ then chose to recall him mercifully, with love and preference. So, Muhammed (P) is now in comfort, released from the burden of this world, surrounded by angels of devotion, satisfied with the Merciful Lord and with being near the powerful King. So, peace of Allah‎ with my Father, His Prophet, the trusted one, the one whom He chose from among His servants, His sincere friend, and peace and blessings of Allah‎ with him.”

Fatima‎ (as)‎ then turned to the crowd and said:
“Surely you (people) are Allah‎’s servants at His command and prohibition, bearers of His creed and revelation. You are the ones whom Allah‎ entrusted to fare with your own selves, His messengers to the nations. Amongst you does He have the right authority, a covenant which He brought forth to you and a legacy which He left to guard you: the eloquent Book of Allah‎, the Qur’an‎ of the truth, the brilliant light, the shining beam. Its insights are indisputable, its secrets are revealed, its indications are manifest and those who follow it are surely blessed. (The Qur’an‎) leads its adherents to righteousness; listening (and acting upon) it leads to salvation.

Through it are the enlightening divine arguments achieved, His manifest determination acquired, His prohibited decrees avoided, His manifest evidence recognized, His convincing proofs made apparent, His permissions granted and His laws written.

So Allah‎ made belief (in Islam) an act of purification for you from (the filth of) polytheism. He made prayers an exaltation for you from conceit, zakat an act of purification for the soul and a (cause of) growth in subsistence, fasting an implantation of devotion, pilgrimage a construction of the creed and justice (`Adl) the harmony of the hearts. And He made obedience to us (Ahl al-Bayt (as)) the management of the affairs of the nation and our leadership (Ahl al-Bayt (as)) a protection from disunity. He made jihad a way for strengthening Islam and patience a helping course for deserving (divine) rewards. He made commending what is right (al-`Amr bil ma`ruf) a cause for public welfare, kindness to parents a safeguard from (His) wrath, the maintaining of close ties with one’s kin a cause for a longer life and for multiplying the number of offspring, in-kind reprisal (qisas قصاص) for saving lives, fulfilling vows the earning of mercy, the completing of weights and measures a cause for avoiding neglecting the rights of others, forbidding drinking wines an exaltation from atrocity, avoiding slander a veil from curse, and the abandonment of stealing a reason for deserving chastity. Allah‎ has also prohibited polytheism so that one can devote himself to His Mastership.

Therefore; Fear Allah‎ as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam. Obey Allah‎ in that which He has commanded you to do and that which He has forbidden, for surely those who truly fear Him from among His servants are those who have knowledge.’

“O People! Be informed that I am Fatima‎, and my father is Muhammad;

I say so repeatedly and initiate it continually. I do not utter mistakenly, nor do I do what I do aimlessly. Now has come unto you a Prophet from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you should perish; ardently anxious is he over you; to the believers he is most kind and merciful. Thus, if you identify and recognize him, you shall realize that he is my father and not the father of any of your women; the brother of my cousin (Ali (as) ‎(as)‎) rather than any of your men. What an excellent identity he was, may the peace and blessings of Allah‎ be with him and his descendants

Thus, he propagated the Message, coming out openly with the warning, inclining away from the path of the polytheists, (he) struck their strength and seized their throats, while he invited (everyone) to the way of his Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching. He destroyed idols and defeated heroes until their group fled and turned on their heels. So night revealed its dawn; righteousness uncovered its genuineness; the voice of the religious authority spoke out loud; the evil discords were silenced; the crown of hypocrisy was diminished; the tying of (the knots of) infidelity and desertion were untied, so you spoke the statement of devotion amongst a band of starved ones, and you were on the edge of a pit of the fire. (You were) the drink of the thirsty; the opportunity of the desiring ones; the fire brand of one who passes in haste; the step for feet.

You used to drink of stagnant water gathered on roads; eat dry jerked meat. (Fatima‎ (as) was stating their miserable living conditions before Islam). You were despised outcasts always in fear of being abducted by those around you.

Yet, Allah‎ rescued you through my father, Muhammad (P) after much ado, and after he was confronted by mighty men, Arab beasts, and demons of the people of the Book Who, whenever they ignited the fire of war, Allah‎ extinguished it; and whenever the thorn of the devil appeared, or a mouth of the polytheists opened wide in defiance, he would strike its discords with his brother (Ali (as)), who comes not back until he treads its wing with the sole of his feet, and extinguishes its flames with his sword. (Ali (as) is diligent in Allah‎’s affair, near to the Messenger of Allah‎ (P), a master among Allah‎’s worshippers, setting to work briskly, sincere in his advice, earnest and exerting himself (in serving Islam), while you were calm, cheerful and feeling safe in your lives of ease, waiting for us to face disasters, awaiting the spread of news. You fell back during every battle and took to your heels at times of fighting.

Yet, When Allah‎ chose His Prophet to Him from the abode of His prophets, the abode of His sincere (servants), the thorns of hypocrisy appeared on you, the garment of faith became worn out, the misguided ignorant ones from among you spoke out, the sluggish ignorant ones came out to the front and brayed. The vain camel wiggled its tail in your courtyards and the devil stuck its head out of its hideout calling on you, finding you responsive to his invitation and observant of his deceits. He then excited you and found you quick (to answer him), inviting you to wrath; therefore, you branded other than your camels and proceeded to other than your drinking places.

Then, while the era of the Prophet was still near, the gap was still wide, the scar had not yet healed, and the Messenger (P) was not yet buried…, a (quick) undertaking you claimed, saying that you aimed at preventing discord. Surely they have fallen into trial already! And indeed Hell surrounds the unbelievers.

How preposterous! What a notion! What falsehood! Allah‎’s Book is still amongst you; its affairs are apparent; its rules are manifest; its signs are dazzling; its restrictions are visible, and its commands are evident. Yet, indeed you have cast it behind your backs! What?! Do you detest it? Or according to something else do you wish to rule? Evil would be such a barter for the wrongdoers! And if anyone desires a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost. Surely you have not waited until its stampede stopped and it became easier to deal with. You started fueling its flames, feeding its coal, complying with the call of the misled devil, putting out the light of the manifest religion, and extinguishing the light of the sincere Prophet. You concealed sips on froth and proceeded towards his (Prophet’s) kin and children in swamps and forests [i.e. you plotted against them in deceitful ways]. But we are patient with you as if we are being notched with knives and stung by spearheads in our stomachs.

“Still, you now claim that there is not inheritance for us! What?! “Do they, then, seek the ruling of (the Days of) ignorance? But how so for people whose faith is assured? Can you give a better ruling than Allah‎? Do you not know? Yes, indeed it is obvious to you that I am his daughter.

O Muslims! Will my inheritance be usurped? O son of Abu Quhafa (Abu Bakr)! Where is it in the Book of Allah‎ that you inherit your father and I do not inherit mine? Surely you have come up with an unprecedented thing. Do you intentionally abandon the Book of Allah‎ and cast it behind your back? Do you not read where it says: ‘And Solomon (Sulayman) inherited David (Dawud)’ (Qur’an, 27:16)? And when it narrates the story of Zacharias, it says: `So grant me (O Lord!) one (heir) who will inherit me and inherit the posterity of Jacob ‘ (19:16) And: `Blood relatives are nearer to each other in the Book of Allah ‎’ (Qur’an, 8:75). And: ‘Allah‎ (thus) directs you regarding your children’s (inheritance): to the male is a portion equal to that of two females’ (Qur’an, 4:11). And: ‘It is prescribed for you that when death approaches any of you, if he leaves behind any goods, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin in goodness, a duty incumbent on the pious’ (Qur’an, 2:180).

You (O Abu Bakr!) claim that I have no share! And that I do not inherit my father! What?! Did Allah‎ reveal a (Qur’an‎ic) verse regarding you from which He excluded my father? Or do you say that these (Fatima‎ and her father are from people of two (different) faiths, so they do not inherit each other?!’ Are we not, I and my father, people adhering to one and the same faith? Or is it that you have knowledge about the specifications and generalizations of the Qur’an‎ more than my father and my cousin (Imam‎ Ali (as))?

So, here you are! Take it! (Ready with) its nose rope and saddle! But it shall encounter you on the Day of Gathering: How Great a judge Allah is when the claimant is Muhammad (P)! What a day it shall be, the Day of Rising! At the time of the Hour shall the wrongdoers lose, and it shall not benefit you to regret (your actions) then! For every Message, there is a time limit, and soon shall you all know who will be inflicted with torture that will humiliate him, and who will be confronted by an everlasting punishment.

Fatima‎ (as) then turned towards the Ansar and said:
“O you people of intellect! The strong supporters of the nation! And those who embraced Islam: What is this shortcoming in defending my right? And what is this slumber (while you see) injustice (being done to me)? Did not the Messenger of Allah‎ (P), my father, use to say: ‘A man is upheld (remembered) by his children’? O how quick have you violated (his orders)?! How soon have you plotted against us?

But you still are capable (of helping me in) my attempt, and powerful (enough to help me) in that which I request and (in) my pursuit (of it). Or do you say: ‘Muhammad has perished’? Surely this is a great calamity; its damage is excessive, its injury is great, its wound (is much too deep) to heal. The Earth became darkened with his departure; the stars eclipsed for his calamity; hopes were dashed; mountains submitted; sanctity violated, and holiness encroached upon after his death. Therefore, this, by Allah‎, is the great affliction, and the momentous calamity; there is not an affliction-which is the like of it; nor will there be a sudden misfortune (as surprising as this).

The Book of Allah‎—excellent in praising him—announced in the courtyards (of your houses) in the place where you spend your evenings and mornings, a call, a cry, a recitation and (verses) placed in order. It (death) had previously come upon His (Allah‎’s) Prophets and Messengers; (for it is) a decree final, and predestination fulfilled: ‘Muhammed is but a Prophet: Many were the Prophets that passed away before him. If he dies or is slain, will you all then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah‎; but Allah‎ (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.

O you people of reflection! Will I be usurped of the inheritance of my father while you hear and see me?! (And while) You are sitting and gathered around me? You hear my call and are included in the (outcome of the) affair? (But) You are numerous and well equipped! (You have) the means and the power, the weapons and the shields. Yet, the call reaches you but you do not answer; the cry comes to you but you do not come to help? (This happens) while you are characterized by struggle, known for goodness and welfare, the selected group, and the best ones chosen by the Messenger (P) for us, we Ahlul-Bayt (as).

You fought the Arabs, bore with pain and exhaustion, struggled against the nations and resisted their heroes. We were still, so were you in ordering you, and you in obeying us. So Islam triumphed, the accomplishment of the days came near, the fort of polytheism was subjected, its outburst was quelled, the outburst of infidelity calmed down, and the system of religion was well-ordered. Thus, (why have you) become confused after clearness, concealing matters after announcing them? Do you thus turn on your heels after charging, associating (others with Allah‎) after believing? Will you not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Prophet and became aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do you fear them? Nay, it is Allah‎ Whom you should more justly fear, if you believe!

Now I see that you are inclined to easy living, having dismissed one who is more worthy of guardianship [referring to Ali (as)]. You secluded yourselves with meekness and dismissed that which you accepted. Yet, if you show ingratitude, you and all those on earth put together, Allah‎ is free of all want, worthy of all praise.

Surely I have said all that I have said with full knowledge that you intend to forsake me, and knowing the betrayal that your hearts sensed. But it is the state of the soul, the effusion of fury, the dissemination of (what is in) the chest and the presentation of the proof. Hence, here it is! Bag it (leadership and) put it on the back of an ill she-camel which has a thin hump with everlasting grace, marked with the wrath of Allah‎ and the blame of ever (which leads to) the Fire of (the wrath of Allah‎ kindled (to a blaze), that which mounts (right) on the hearts. Allah‎ witnesses what you do, and soon will the unjust assailants come to know what vicissitudes their affairs will take! And I am the daughter of a warner (Prophet (P)) to you against a severe punishment. So, act and so will we, and wait, and we, too, shall wait.’”

فأجابها أبو بكر وقال:

يا بنت رسول الله لقد كان أبوك بالمؤمنين عطوفا كريما رءوفا رحيما وعلى الكافرين عذابا أليما وعقابا عظيما،

إن عزوناه وجدناه أباك دون النساء وأخا إلفك دون الأخلاء، آثره على كل حميم وساعده في كل أمر جسيم، لا يحبكم إلا سعيد ولا يبغضكم إلا شقي بعيد،

فأنتم عترة رسول الله الطيبون الخيرة المنتجبون على الخير، أدلتنا وإلى الجنة مسالكنا.

وأنت يا خيرة النساء وابنة خير الأنبياء صادقة في قولك سابقة في وفور عقلك غير مردودة عن حقك ولا مصدودة عن صدقك،

والله ما عدوت رأي رسول الله ولا عملت إلا بإذنه والرائد لا يكذب أهله، وإني أشهد الله وكفى به شهيدا أني سمعت رسول الله (P) يقول: نحن معاشر الأنبياء لا نورث ذهبا و لا فضة و لا دارا ولا عقارا وإنما نورث الكتاب والحكمة والعلم والنبوة وما كان لنا من طعمة فلولي الأمر بعدنا أن يحكم فيه بحكمه، وقد جعلنا ما حاولته في الكراع والسلاح يقاتل بها المسلمون ويجاهدون.

Abu Bakr responded to her by saying,:

“O daughter of the Messenger of Allah‎! Your father was always affectionate with the believers, generous, kind and merciful, and towards the unbelievers was he a painful torment and a great punishment.

Surely the Prophet is your father, not anyone else’s, the brother of your husband, not of any other man’s; he surely preferred him over all his friends and (Ali (as)) supported him in every important matter. No one loves you save the lucky and no one hates you save the wretch.

You are the blessed progeny of Allah‎’s Messenger, the chosen ones, our guides to goodness, our path to Paradise. And you, O the best of women, the daughter of the best of prophets, are truthful is your statements, excelling in reasoning. You shall not be driven back from your right…

But I surely heard your father saying: `We, group of prophets, do not inherit, nor are we inherited. Yet, this is my situation and property, it is yours (if you wish); it shall not be concealed from you, nor will it be stored away from you. You are the Mistress of your father’s nation, and the blessed tree of your descendants. Your property shall not be usurped against your will nor can your name be defamed. Your judgment shall be executed in all that which I possess. Do you think that I would violate your father’s (will)?”

فقالت عليها السلام:

سبحان الله! ما كان أبي رسول الله (P) عن كتاب الله صادفا ولا لأحكامه مخالفا، بل كان يتبع أثره ويقفو سوره؛ أفتجمعون إلى الغدر اعتلالا عليه بالزور وهذا بعد وفاته شبيه بما بغي له من الغوائل في حياته؟

هذا كتاب الله حكما عدلا وناطقا فصلا يقول: (يَرِثُنِي وَ يَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ) و يقول: ( وَ وَرِثَ سُلَيْمانُ داوُد)َ وبين عز وجل فيما وزع من الأقساط وشرع من الفرائض والميراث وأباح من حظ الذكران والإناث ما أزاح به علة المبطلين وأزال التظني والشبهات في الغابرين؛ كلا بل سولت لكم أنفسكم أمرا فصبر جميل والله المستعان على ما تصفون .

Fatima‎ then refuted Abu Bakr’s claim that the Prophet had stated that prophets could not be inherited. She said:

Glory to Allah‎!! Surely Allah‎’s Messenger did not abandon Allah‎’s Book, nor did he violate His commands. Rather, he followed its decrees and adhered to its chapters.

So do you unite with treachery justifying your acts with fabrications? Indeed this—after his departure—is similar to the disasters which were plotted against him during his lifetime. But behold!

This is Allah‎’s Book, a just judge and a decisive speaker, saying: `… One who will inherit Me and inherit the posterity of Jacob (Ya`qub),’ (Qur’an, 19:6) and ‘Sulaiman (Solomon) inherited Dawood (David).’ (Qur’an, 27: 16)

Thus, He (Glory to Him) made clear that which He made all heirs share, decreed from the amounts of inheritance, allowed for males and females and eradicated all doubts and ambiguities (pertaining to this issue which existed with the) bygones. Nay! But your minds have made up a tale (that may pass) with you, but (for me) patience is most fitting against that which you assert. It is Allah‎ (alone) whose help can be sought

فقال أبو بكر:

صدق الله ورسوله وصدقت ابنته معدن الحكمة وموطن الهدى والرحمة وركن الدين وعين الحجة، لا أبعد صوابك ولا أنكر خطابك، هؤلاء المسلمون بيني وبينك قلدوني ما تقلدت وباتفاق منهم أخذت ما أخذت، غير مكابر ولا مستبد ولا مستأثر، وهم بذلك شهود.

Abu Bakr said:

Surely Allah‎ and His Prophet are truthful, and so has his (the Prophet’s) daughter told the truth.

Surely you are the source of wisdom, the element of faith, and the sole authority. May Allah‎ not refute your righteous argument, nor invalidate your decisive speech. But these are the Muslims among us who have entrusted me with leadership, and it was according to their satisfaction that I received what (authority) I have undertaken.

I am not being arrogant, autocratic or selfish, and they are my witnesses.” Upon hearing Abu Bakr speak of the people’s support for him, Lady Fatima‎ Zahra’ ‎(as)‎ turned towards them and said

It is apparent that Abu Bakr seized the moment when he was addressed Lady Fatima‎ (as)‎ after delivering her speech to defend himself. Listen to his following speech which is his reply to Fatima‎’s speech.
فالتفتت فاطمة عليها السلام إلى الناس و قالت:

معاشر المسلمين المسرعة إلى قيل الباطل المغضية على الفعل القبيح الخاسر، أفلا تتدبرون القرآن أم على قلوب أقفالها؟

كلا بل ران على قلوبكم ما أسأتم من أعمالكم فأخذ بسمعكم وأبصاركم ولبئس ما تأولتم وساء ما به أشرتم وشر ما منه اغتصبتم،

لتجدن والله محمله ثقيلا وغبه وبيلا إذا كشف لكم الغطاء وبان بإورائه الضراء وبدا لكم من ربكم ما لم تكونوا تحتسبون و خسر هنا لك المبطلون.

O people who rush towards uttering falsehood and are indifferent to disgraceful and lost actions!

Do you not earnestly seek to reflect upon the Qur’an‎, or are your hearts isolated with locks? But on your hearts is the stain of the evil which you committed; it has seized your hearing and your sight. Evil is that which you justified, cursed is that which you reckoned, and wicked is that which you have taken for an exchange!

You shall, by Allah‎, find bearing it (to be a great) burden, and its consequence disastrous. That is on the Day when the cover is removed and what is behind it of wrath appears to you. When you will be confronted by Allah‎ with that which you can never expect, there and then, those who stood on falsehoods will perish.

Although parts of Abu Bakr’s speeches cannot be verified with authentic evidence, and despite the fact that we have already mentioned part of the actual speech, which Abu Bakr delivered after Lady Fatima‎’s arguments, it appears certain that Abu Bakr was finally persuaded to return Fadak to her. Nevertheless, when Fatima‎ was leaving Abu Bakr’s house, Omar suddenly appeared and exclaimed: “What is it that you hold in your hand?”

Abu Bakr replied: ‘A decree I have written for Fatima‎ (as) in which I returned Fadak and her father’s inheritance to her.” Omar then said: “With what will you spend on the Muslims if the Arabs decide to fight you?!”

وفي سيرة الحلبي ج 3 ص 391 :- أن عمر أخذ الكتاب فشقه.

According to p. 391, Vol. 3, of al-Halabi’s Seera book, Omar [ibn al-Khattab] seized the decree and tore it to pieces…

In some reports, Abu Bakr, a longtime Sahaabi of the Prophet and one of the earliest men to embrace Islam, honored Fatima’s request and returned Fadak to her. He wrote her a deed of the Fadak property in his own hand and gave it to her, whereupon she had left the Prophet’s Mosque, which Abu Bakr had made the seat of his government, feeling happy. She happened to be seen by Omar who asked her what she was carrying in her hand. When she told him what it was, he grabbed it from her hand in a rude way and with force, spitted in it then tore it to pieces.

For references from Sunni books detailing this incident, refer to the two-volume book which the author of this book translated for the Imam Hussain Foundation; it is titled Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts cast and rebuttals which is mentioned in more than one place in this book.

ثم عطفت على قبر النبي ( ص ) و قالت

لو كنت شاهدها لم تكثر الخطب قد كان بعدك انباء وهنبثة
واختل قومك فاشهدهم فقد نكبوا انا فقدناك فقد الارض وابلها
من البرية لا عجم و لا عرب وقد رُزينا بما لم يرزه أحد
يوم القيامة أنى سوف ينقلب سيعلم المتولي ظلم حامتنا
وسيم سبطاك خسفاً فيه لي نصب ضاقت عليَّ بلادي بعدما رحبت
عند الاله على الأدنين مقترب و كل أهل له قربى و منزلة
لما مضيت وحالت دونك الترب أبدت رجال لنا نجوى صدورهم
اذ غبت عنا فنحن اليوم نغتصب تجهمتنا رجال و آستخف بنا
عليك ينزل من ذي العزة الكتب وكنت بدرا و نورا يستضاء به
فقد فقدت وكل الخير محتجب قد كان جبريل بالآيات يؤنسنا
لما مضيت و حالت دونك الكثب فليت قبلك كان الموت صادفنا
بقيت من العيون بتهمال لها سكب فسوف نبكيك ما عشنا وما
صافي الضرائب والأعراق والنسب وقد رزينا به محضا خليقته
وأصدق الناس حين الصدق والكذب أنت خير عباد الله كلهم

After you, reports and momentous chaotic events we found,
Had you witnessed them, calamities would not abound.

We missed you as sorely as earth would miss its rain,
Your folks lost balance, see how from the creed they did refrain,

We, like no others, have suffered affliction,
Unlike all Arabs, or others from among Allah‎’s creation.

One who has oppressed us will come on Judgment Day
To know what fate will be awaiting him.

My homeland is now narrow after its great expanse indeed,
Both your grandsons have been wronged, so my heart is grieved,

Every family has relatives and a place
With the Almighty Who is close to those of grace,

Certain men what their chests hid did they to us reveal,
When you went, and now you from our sights did a grave conceal,

Men assaulted and slighted us, when you became far away
So, now what rightfully belongs to us is being taken away.

You were the moon, your light showed us what we should heed,
Messages from the Exalted One were to you revealed.

With the Verses did Gabriel make our day,
Now you are gone, every good thing is kept away.

How we wish in our direction death did the Almighty guide
Before you left us, and you did the dunes from us hide.

We shall cry over you so long as our tears can pour,
So long as floods of tears can withstand and endure.

We have been afflicted with tragedy on his account
One who is pure in peers, folks and lineage,

For you are the best of Allah‎’s creation and
Most truthful of those who only the truth defend.

For a slide show about Fatima and the Khutba of Al-Zahraa please click the following:
Fatima, Her Speech and Fadak
Fatima Speaks out
Fatima in Focus

ـ من أشار إلى خطبة الصديقة فاطمة (عليها السلام( أو روى شيئاً منها نذكر بعضاً منهم على سبيل المثال لا الحصر، وهم كالتالي:

1 ـ الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي (ت 175 هـ) في كتاب العين: 8 / 323 في كلمة اللمّة، قال: وفي الحديث جاءت فاطمة (عليها السلام) إلى أبي بكر في لُميمة من حفدتها ونساء قومها.

2 ـ جار الله محمد بن عمر الزمخشري (ت 538 هـ).

في الفائق: 3 / 331 في مادة اللمة أيضاً قال: وفي حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها، حتى دخلت على أبي بكر.

3 ـ أبو الفرج عبد الرحمن بن علي بن الجوزي، (ت 597 هـ(.

في غريب الحديث: 2 / 333 وقال: وفي الحديث: أنّ فاطمة (عليها السلام) خرجت في لمة من نسائها إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته. أي في جماعة؛ وقيل: من الثلاث إلى العشر.

4 ـ مجد الدين أبو السعادات ابن الأثير (ت 606 هـ(.

في النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر: 4 / 273 وقال: في حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها، إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته.

5 ـ أبو الفضل جمال الدين بن منظور (ت 711 هـ).

في لسان العرب: 12 / 548 وقال: وفي حديث فاطمة (عليها السلام): إنّها خرجت في لمة من نسائها تتوطّأ ذيلها إلى أبي بكر فعاتبته. ذكرها في مادة لمم.

References to this speech by the Truthful One, Fatima‎, peace with her, including some who cited excerpts of it, include the following:

Al-Khalīl ibn Ahmed al-Farahīdi الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي (d. 175 A.H./792 A.D.) on p. 323, Vol. 8, of Kitab al-`Ayn,
Jarallah‎ Muhammed ibn Omar al-Zamakhshari[1] الزمخشري (d. 538 A.H./1144 A.D.) on p. 331, Vol. 3, of Al-Fa’iq;
Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman ibn Ali (as) ibn al-Jawzi ابن الجوزي (d. 597 A.H./1201 A.D.),
Majd ad-Dīn Abu al-Sa`adat Ibn al-Athīr ابن الأثير (d. 606 A.H./1210 A.D.) on p. 273, Vol. 4 of his book titled An-Nihaya,
Abul-Fadl Jamal ad-Dīn ibn Manzour ابن منظور (d. 711 A.H./1312 A.D.) on p. 548, Vol. 12 (old edition) of his lexicon titled Lisan al-`Arab.

[1] Refer to a footnote about al-Zamakhshari above.

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